avian & livestock assay data sheet
qualitative detection of various coronaviruses by reverse
transcription coupled real time PCR.
assay detects but does not differentiate bovine coronaviruses
and coronaviruses of several other animal species.
Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that mutate quickly to adapt to
This significantly increases their potential for
interspecies transmission. SARS (severe acute respiratory
syndrome) is an example of zoonotic infection of
humans by a group 2b coronavirus.
Coronaviruses have now been recognized as important pathogens in
several captive or wild ruminant species in the United States
(Alekseev et al., 2008), including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus
virginianus), elk (Cervus elephus), sambar
deer (Cervus unicolor) and waterbuck (Kobus
ellipsiprymnus). In addition, some caribou (Rangifer
tarandus), musk oxen (Ovibus moschatus) and
sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) have been found to be
seropositive for coronavirus.
Coronavirus infection can result in clinically
mild-to-severe and sometimes bloody diarrhea. Similarly,
coronaviruses have also been shown to cause diarrhea in many
ruminants, including cattle, horses, deer and antelopes. In
cattle, coronavirus infection can also cause respiratory
Serological detection of coronaviruses has low sensitivity and
is not very specific. However, PCR detection of coronaviruses
can provide rapid, specific and sensitive determination of the
presence of the virus.
Help confirm the
disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of these viruses among a
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Alekseev, K.P., Vlasova, A.N., Jung, K., Hasoksuz, M., Zhang,
X., Halpin, R., Wang, S., Ghedin, E., Spiro, D. and Saif, L.J.
(2008) Bovine-like coronaviruses isolated from four species of
captive wild ruminants are homologous to bovine coronaviruses,
based on complete genomic sequences. J Virol. 82:12422-12431.
0.2 ml feces, or fecal swab, or nasopharyngeal swab
For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to
confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR