We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

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Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Mycoplasma PCR tests for poultry
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae

Test codes:

B0032 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by real time polymerase chain reaction. B0032 is included in the poultry respiratory panel.

B0033 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by real time polymerase chain reaction

P0012 - Mycoplasma poultry panel: Ultrasensitive qualitative detection and differentiation of M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae by real time polymerase chain reaction

 

Mycoplasma synoviae is a known pathogen associated with the development of synovitis and chronic respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys. Clinical symptoms include joint swelling, coryza and respiratory rales. Economic losses due to M. synoviae infection include reduced egg production, lowered hatchability of chicks and downgraded meat quality. However, there may be no symptoms developed in birds infected with this bacterium.

On the other hand, Mycoplasma gallisepticum is associated with chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. The symptoms generally seen are coryza, coughing, nasal exudate and respiratory rales. Economic losses due to M. gallisepticum infection include reduced egg production, lowered hatchability of chicks and downgraded meat quality.

Infection rates may be very high and once an infection starts, it can spread rapidly within and between houses on a farm. Infected poultry can have variable symptoms but the mortality rate is generally less than 10%. Infection takes place through the conjunctiva or upper respiratory tract with a long incubation period, 11–21 days following contact exposure. Transmission can be transovarian, or lateral via respiratory aerosols and direct contact. Although the survival of the infectious agent outside the bird is poor, it can be transmitted on fomites. Predisposing factors include stress and viral respiratory infections.

Infection with these mycoplasmas must be differentiated from viral arthritis, staphylococcal arthritis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and viral respiratory disease with colibacillosis. M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae are very similar antigenically, so these two bacteria can be very difficult to differentiate by conventional serological tests (Bradbury and Jordan, 1971, 1973). Molecular detection using PCR is especially useful, as the primers used in the assay are designed over a highly conserved region that differentiates the two bacteria. PCR is much more sensitive and specific than other conventional methods to detect these bacteria.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm clinical diagnosis and differentiation of M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae infection
  • Help ensure that flocks are free of mycoplasmas
  • Early prevention of spread of mycoplasmas among and between flocks
  • Minimize human exposure to mycoplasmas
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from birds

References:
Bradbury, J. M. and Jordan, F.T.W. (1971) The adsorption of gamma globulins to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and the possible role in nonspecific serological reactions. Vet. Rec. 89:318.
Bradbury, J. M., and Jordan, F.T.W. (1973) Nonspecific agglutination of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Vet. Rec. 92:591-592.

Preferred specimen: Tracheal swab.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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